Modals:  Assumptions                                      Name:  ________________
Source:  Focus on Grammar Workbook 2nd edition, pages 153-158    Date: ____________________

Exercise 1  Affirmative and Negative Statements with Must

  1. Jack is wearing a gold wedding band on his ring finger.
    He (be) _____________________________________ married.
  2. You have been calling Alicia since 8:00 p.m., but no one answers the phone.
    She (be) _______________________________________ at home.
  3. Jackie got 98 percent on her math test.
    Her parents  (feel) ____________________________________ proud of her.
  4. Carlos works from 9:00 to 5:00 and then attends night school.
    He  (have) _____________________________________ a lot of free time.
  5. Martin works as a mechanic in Al's Automobile Shop.
    He  (know) ___________________________________ a lot about cars.
  6. Monica owns two houses an four cars.
    She ( have) _________________________________ a lot of money.
  7. Mr. Cantor always asks me to repeat what I say.
    He (hear) _____________________________________ well.
  8. Chen only got four hours of sleep last night.
    He (feel) _________________________________very tired today.
  9. Carmen was born in Mexico and moved to the United States when she was ten.
    She (speak) ___________________________________ Spanish.
  10. Mindy never gets good grades.
    She  (study)____________________________________ enough.
  11. Dan just bought a bottle of aspirin and four boxes of tissues.
    He (have) ____________________________________________ a cold.
  12. Ana and Giorgio didn't have any of the steak.
    they (eat) _______________________________________ meat.

Exercise 2  Contrast:  Must or May/Might/Could
Directions:  Circle the correct words to complete these conversations.

  1. A:  Someone broke into the Petersons' house.
    B:  That's terrible! What did they take?
    A:  All of Mrs. Peterson's jewelry.
    B:  Oh, no!  She could/must feel awful.
  2. A:  Is she home now?
    B:  I don't know. She might/must be home.  She sometimes gets home by 6:00.
  3. A:  Do the Petersons have insurance?
    B:  Oh, they could/must.  Mr. Peterson works at an insurance company.
  4. A:  Have you checked our burglar alarm lately?
    B:  Yes.  And I just put in a new battery.
    A:  Good.  So it must/might be OK.
  5. A:  Do you remember that guy we saw outside the Petersons' home last week?
    B:  Yes.  Why?  Do you think he might/must be the burglar?
  6. A:  I don't know.  I guess he must/could be the burglar.  He looked a little suspicious.
    B:  Maybe we should tell the police about him.
  7. A:  Someone's at the door.
    B:  Who could/must it be?
    A:  I don't know.
  8. A:  Detective Kramer wanted to ask us some questions about the burglary.
    B:  On. It must/could be him.  We're not expecting anybody else.
  9. A:  How old do you think Detective Kramer is?
    B:  Well, he's been a detective for ten years.  So he must/might be a least thirty-five.
  10. A:  You're right.  He couldn't/might not be much younger than thirty-five.  He probably started out as a lice officer and became a detective in his early twenties.
    B:  He looks a lot younger, though.

Exercise 3  Short Answers with Must or May/Might/Could
Directions:  Answer the questions with short answers..  Include be when necessary.

  1. A:  Is Ron a detective?
    B:  He _______________________.  He always carries a notepad.
  2. A:  Does Marta speak Spanish?
    B:  ________________________.  She lived in Spain for four years.
  3. A:  Do the Taylors have a lot of money?
    B:  _______________________________.  They have two homes, and they're always taking expensive vacations.
  4. A:  Is Ricardo married?
    B:  _______________________________.  He wears a wedding ring.
  5. A:  Does Anna know Meng?
    B:  _______________________________.  They both work for the same company, but there are more than 100 employees.
  6. A:  Is your phone out of order?
    B:  __________________________________________.  It hasn't rung once today, and John always calls me by this time.
  7. A:  Are Marcia and Scott married?
    B:  ________________________________________.  They both have the same last name, but it's possible that they're brother and sister.
  8. A:  Does Glenda drive?
    B:  _______________________________________.  She owns a car.
  9. A:  Is Oscar an only child?
    B:  _______________________________________.  He's never mentioned a brother or sister.  I really don't know.
  10. A:  Are the Hendersons away?
    B:  _______________________________________.  I haven't seen them for a week, and there are no lights on in their apartment.